Self-government is an institution of state law. Self-government is a specific type of administration. It differs by the fact that the object and subject of the relationship coincide. In other words, people independently manage their own affairs. Consider this institute in more detail.
Self-government is a specific type of administration. It differs by the fact that the object and subject of the relationship coincide. In other words, people independently manage their own affairs. Consider this institute in more detail.
It is elected by the population on the territory of the municipal education. If we consider citizens in the political and sociological aspect, then they act as a community. Its presence serves as an indicator of a certain structure within society. The value of this community is expressed in a beneficial effect on the municipal administrative apparatus. At the same time, the institution has a significant influence on state self-government. The community of citizens participates in relations with the administration of the MoI, the region and the federal center on the basis of the provisions of the legislation.
Self-government is the organization and implementation of citizens' activities, which provides the population with problems of territorial importance, including those associated with the use of municipal property, in accordance with the interests of residents of this MO. This definition is characterized by an institution in the narrow sense. In a more general consideration of the issue, it is assumed that local self-government bodies are empowered and have the ability to regulate most of social relations within the law, under their responsibility and in accordance with the interests of citizens.
Self-government is one way of expressing the will of the people. This form is decentralized and involves some autonomy, independence. The theoretical foundations of the Institute were formed in the early 19th century by Alexis Tocqueville, Lorentz Stein, Rudolf Gneits, Paul Laband and several other figures. In Russia, self-government is a public system that is not associated with civil society.
Fundamentals of organization and activities
The law provides for the conditions under which the nature of the institute, its position and significance in the system are determined. Allocate the following principles of self-government:
- Independence. This condition is enshrined in the Constitution. Independence extends to all spheres of influence of the institute: financial, economic, legal, organizational.
- State guarantees and support.
- Independence of one MO from another within its competence.
- Obligation to have a legislative body or exercise its functions as a citizen's meeting.
- Priority of representative institutions.
- Publicity activities aimed at the implementation of self-government.
- Subsidiarity, interaction and cooperation with regional and federal institutes in matters of providing vital functions of citizens.
What is the authority of local self-government?
They represent certain opportunities and responsibilities established in the federal, regional and municipal laws. The powers of local self-government relate to the implementation of functions and tasks set before it, the resolution of territorial issues. They can be implemented in two ways. The population can express their will directly and directly or through local governments.
Work in the budget sphere
Several groups of powers of local self-government are allocated depending on one or another area of activity. So, in the budget sphere, the territorial structures:
- Compose, approve and implement the budget.
- Formate lending funds for activities and targeted programs aimed at addressing territorial issues.
- Create extrabudgetary reserves, determine their status and directions of spending money.
- Establish territorial fees and taxes.
In the field of property management of local authorities:
- Establish conditions for the creation, acquisition, transformation of objects.
- Approved in accordance with the legislation the procedure under which the appointment to and removal from office of heads of municipal organizations, institutions and enterprises is carried out.
- Determine the list of objects of municipal property, the acquisition, formation and transformation of which requires the consent of the local self-government body.
- Establish advantages and privileges, in the tax sphere, including, to stimulate the work of entrepreneurs.
- Form the conditions for the placement of enterprises that are not owned by the municipality in the territory under the jurisdiction of local authorities.
Local authorities in this area:
- Determine the procedure for the removal and provision of plots in accordance with the law.
- Establish rules for the use of natural resources.
- Decide on the suspension of construction work in case of violations of sanitary, environmental norms.
- Prohibit measures that may have an adverse effect on the environment, according to the conclusion of sanitary and epidemiological surveillance.
Utilities, household, trade services
In these areas, local self-government:
- Approves rules and plans for the development of the territory.
- Determine the procedure for the sale and transfer of housing in the ownership of enterprises and citizens, renting it.
- Issues permission for development, suspends construction, which is carried out in violation of approved projects and regulations.
- Involves on a contractual basis organizations and enterprises to participate in increasing industrial capacities.
- Manages organizations and transport companies that are owned by the municipality.
- Controls the work of other transport agencies that provide services to the population.
- Defines and approves schedules and routes of movement.
- Involves transport services on a contractual basis, located on the territory under jurisdiction.
- Provides accounting for cars and other vehicles.
- Organizes and controls work with passengers at train stations, airports, quays.
- Provides activity of communication enterprises, development of television and radio.
Local authorities take various measures to improve the social, domestic, material and housing conditions of people in need of assistance at home, the disabled, the elderly, families who have lost their breadwinner. At the expense of the budget, privileges for medical services and sanatorium and spa treatment, payment for communal and transport services, etc. can be established.