The system of state authorities. State power in the Russian Federation is built within the framework of a multi-stage system. What are its features? What makes the Russian model of political control similar to that of foreign systems?
The system of government in the Russian Federation operates on the basis of principles that can have both signs of similarity with foreign models, and to determine the isolation of the Russian concept of the organization of political control. What is the specific character of state power in our country? What are the main principles of interaction between federal and regional political institutions?
What is the system of public authorities? According to the widespread definition, it should be understood as the totality of power structures through which political institutions carry out their key functions: the publication and implementation of laws, the conduct of foreign and domestic policies, and the development of the economy. In the case of democratic regimes, the system of public authorities functions through mechanisms that modify and update relevant political structures, such as, for example, a pluralistic party model or alternatives to multiple candidates.
Features of the Russian system
The system of state authorities in the Russian Federation operates on the basis of a number of principles, which in some respects generalize it with foreign models, but at the same time, it also causes its distinctness to be noticeable. Among the principles common between Russian and Western political systems - the division of power. The fact is that bodies exercising state power in democratic regimes are subdivided into those that reflect the legislative aspect of activities, those that function as executive, as well as those that perform judicial functions.
Among the specific principles for the operation of the political management structures of some of the experts, the experts singled out the unity of the system of government. The fact is that in many other states, the functions and powers of public authorities at the political center level can be exercised on the basis of algorithms that are significantly different from those inherent in, for example, processes at the level of actors (states, lands).
In Russia, the organization of power at all levels is very similar in general. At the same time, it should be noted that, in accordance with the Constitution of the country, local self-government in the RF is separated from the state. This scheme is also implemented in many other countries where the municipalities operate sufficiently regardless of metropolitan political institutions. But local authorities are one way or another accountable to the center. With municipal structures, they interact, as a rule, within the framework of the criteria that determine the delimitation of powers.
Classification of authorities
Consider what criteria for the classification of political structures, within which a system of public administration functions in Russia. Thus, in particular, elective bodies of state power of the Russian Federation (such as the State Duma, the President, legislative bodies in the regions) are allocated, as well as those which are formed on the basis of the principles laid down in the civil service law, labor law.
Another basis for the classification of government bodies is the nature of the normative framework. Yes, there are structures that are established at the level of the Constitution of the Russian Federation and the regions (or, if we are talking about areas, are based on the charters), but there are those that are formed by the law (for example, these election commissions), by virtue of acts of the President of or resolutions of the Government, as well as other sources of law at the level of the directives of the ministries.
The structure of the state authorities of the Russian Federation are individual - in the person of the President or heads of regions, as well as collective (executive) bodies. Depending on the level of the political process allocated federal structures or relevant institutions at the level of subjects of the RF. Concerning the bodies of the first type: it is the President, the Federal Assembly (which consists of two different levels of chambers, the upper - the Federation Council and the lower - the State Duma), the Government, as well as the highest judicial bodies.
At the level of subjects, the system of state authorities is determined, in accordance with the legislation, independently, but with the mandatory legal norms that are required by the Constitution of Ukraine. In the regions of the Russian Federation there is, therefore, a legislative, supplemented by its executive, as well as judicial power, the structure of which is generally similar to the model adopted by the center. Consider the features of the Russian model of separation of powers.
The system of public authorities in Russia, speaking of its legislative branch, is represented by the following key structures:
- Federal assembly;
- legislative, folk, regional state collections (parliaments) in the subjects of the Russian Federation.
The main specifics of the authorities' data is that they (in whole or in the framework of any chamber) in all cases choose the population of a particular region or country as a whole. The exception is the supreme body of state power in this branch, ie the Federal Assembly.
The people are only elected to the lower house of the House - the State Duma. The Upper Council of the Federation is formed on the basis of the appointment of figures for the corresponding position. It may be noted that the law-making bodies of state power of the federation's subjects are not directly accountable to the Federal Assembly. This, as analysts say, is largely the result of their electoral nature. Those legal acts that are adopted in the regions must first and foremost be in line with the local interests of the population.
The system of state executive bodies in Russia is also presented at several levels. The federal government is the Government of the Russian Federation, at the regional level, the presidents and heads of the RF subjects, local governments, and ministries.
At the same time, all executive bodies in the regions are accountable to the center. And this is their difference, for example, from the legislative branch of government, in which the parliaments of the RF subjects are not directly dependent on the Federal Assembly. The place and role of the President of the Russian Federation in relation to the functions of the executive bodies - the subject of frequent discussions. A little later, we will consider the relevant aspect.
Judiciary in the Russian Federation
This branch of power in the RF includes the courts represented in the following types of institutions:
- The Constitutional Court of Ukraine;
- Supreme and other federal courts;
- bodies in subjects.
Together, all the structures within the respective branch of government form the judicial system of Russia.
Authorities outside the system?
Some experts point out that the system of state authorities in the RF at the federal level includes structures that are difficult to correlate with others in terms of subordination or division of powers. For example, the Russian Prosecutor's Office is viewed by many analysts as an independent authority. A similar assessment exists with respect to the Central Bank of the Russian Federation. Although in both cases a widespread viewpoint finds a denial in an expert environment.
Some analysts believe that the system of state authorities of the Russian Federation should be reformed in such a way that no political structure is outside the jurisdiction of the three main branches of power - legislative, executive and judicial. It is also worth noting that the system of state authorities of the Russian Federation includes structures that are intended to perform auxiliary or, for example, advisory functions complementing the activities of the main political structures. These include, in particular, the Administration of the President and the Security Council of the Russian Federation.
Powers of the President of the Russian Federation
The ratio of the powers of the head of state and the Government of the Russian Federation is a frequent reason for the discussions. Many experts believe that the President of the Russian Federation is not only the supreme body of state power, but also the actual head of the executive branch, as well as the entire system of political government of the state. And this despite the fact that his powers are sufficiently limited by the Constitution. Thus, if we follow this point of view, the federal bodies of state power, which are members of the executive, are presented immediately by several subjects of government - the President and the Government.
In accordance with the Constitution of the Russian Federation, the head of state is called upon to exercise general direction concerning the Government. At the same time, the prime minister of the RF, who heads the relevant executive body, has similar powers. Speaking, therefore, about the principle of unity in the system of state power in, some experts tend to understand this phenomenon as a pronounced vertical subordination, in this case, is observed with the interaction of the President and the Government of the country. There is also a widespread view that the head of the Russian state is not included in any of the three branches of government. This is due, experts believe, the specifics of his powers, determined at the level of different legal acts.
The president of the Russian Federation is the source of power, according to many analysts, which implies accountability to most of the other structures of political governance. That is why the quality of the functioning of the entire system of government depends on how effectively the head of state operates. Let's consider the specifics of the powers of the President of the Russian Federation more.
Specificity of the activities of the President of the Russian Federation
According to a widespread point of view, based on the provisions of the Constitution of and other laws, the main political role of the President of Russia - in coordinating the functions of other bodies of state power, which allows you to work effectively on the entire mechanism of political governance.
What are the key activities of the President of the Russian Federation? First of all, the head of state directly participates in the process within which federal bodies of state power are formed. Also, the President of the Russian Federation is one of the subjects of the law-making initiative. Many laws discussed in the Federal Assembly are initiated by the head of state.
Among the most important powers of the President of the RF - ensuring the effective functioning of executive power. Actually, this aspect of the head of state's activity gives many experts the impression that the President is also the subject of the executive branch.
An important role of the head of state in the aspect of the functioning of the political system on a national scale, according to analysts, is due to another important role of the President, which is prescribed in the legislation - ensuring the implementation of the powers of federal agencies throughout the territory of.
Among the powers specific to the head of state are foreign policy, as well as the resolution of key issues of national defense. In this sense, the President of the Russian Federation, as many experts believe, is a key figure in Russia's political power system.
Consider now examples of the most important functions and powers of the head of state of the Russian Federation.
Functions and powers of the President of the Russian Federation
Among the significant functions that the President of the Russian Federation is called to enforce by law is the appointment of elections to the lower chamber of the Federal Assembly (due to the termination of powers of deputies or the dissolution of the State Duma).
Another major function of the head of state is the signing of federal laws. No acts of the appropriate type will enter into force unless the head of state signs it. At the same time, the President has the right to veto the federal laws.
The head of state in Russia is one of the key subjects of the budget process. And this is undoubtedly a high role of economic structures in the Government. The President of the Russian Federation may, in practice, exercise the appropriate type of authority by publishing budget letters to the competent authorities.
The powers of the head of state in Russia are implemented through the establishment of a number of subsidiary political institutions. Such as, for example, the Presidential Office in the State Duma and the Federation Council. With the help of these structures, the activities of state authorities at the level of lawmaking and the work of the head of the Russian state can be carried out within the framework of common priorities in the management of the country.
Let's consider, in turn, an aspect that reflects the interaction of the President and those structures that are traditionally taken to the executive. As we have already noted above, many experts believe that the head of the Russian state is the subject of the executive branch of government. This thesis of analysts is considered possible to formulate, proceeding from the powers that the President of the Russian Federation endowed:
- The Prime Minister of the Russian Federation, who heads the Government, is appointed by the head of state (however, with the consent of the State Duma);
- the Vice-Presidents of the Government and the ministers are also appointed by the President (but on the proposal of the Prime Minister);
- The Head of the Government is obliged within a week after his appointment to submit to the head of state a proposal reflecting the structure of the ministries;
- The President of the Russian Federation has the right to make a decision according to which the Government may be dismissed;
- The head of state has the right to participate in the meetings of the Government as chairman.
Also, some experts draw attention to the wording in Article 115 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation. It says, in particular, that the President of the Russian Federation may cancel the legal acts issued by the Government if they contradict the basic law of the country, federal sources, as well as decrees by the head of state.
Another aspect of the influence of the President of the Russian Federation on the structure of executive power is traced in defense matters. According to the RF Constitution, the head of state is also endowed with powers of the Commander-in-Chief of the Army. That is, with the decrees, the President of the Russian Federation can make decisions within the competences that are specific to the Ministry of Defense and other bodies whose activities are relevant to the relevant group of issues.
We discussed how the President of the Russian Federation interacts with the legislative and executive bodies. Now, let's touch on the aspect of the relationship between the powers of the head of the Russian state and judicial structures. Concerning them, the President of Russia has the right:
- to provide the Federation Council with the candidatures of judges to the RF Constitutional Court;
- to appoint judges of a number of federal judicial structures, as well as institutions of general jurisdiction, arbitration, military authorities (at the request of the President of the Supreme Court;
- to issue decrees according to which material and technical provision of institutions within the framework of the relevant branch of power is carried out;
- make a decision about pardon.
Thus, we see that the President of the Russian Federation is an entity of state power whose activities are characterized by an extremely wide group of powers.
aspects of unity
In the Russian expert community, there is also a discussion about the unity of the system of government. Above, we have noted that this phenomenon often means uniformity of the key principles of the organization of political control, as well as the accountability of many regional federal authorities.
The main subject of discussion in the expert environment is the division of powers between different management structures. Despite the fact that the bodies of state power of local self-government, in accordance with the RF Constitution, should operate separately from the state, in practice there are cases where key decisions at the level of political processes in the municipalities are taken by the state executive bodies (which, in turn, are accountable to the federal) .