Types, levels of management and their characteristics. The article deals with the level of management, goals in the various directions and features of the organization of the enterprise.
Types and levels of management - a topic relevant to any company. There is no enterprise in which there would be no attempt to build an effective system of personnel management and, as a result, an algorithm for achieving the tasks. The competent management of various groups of specialists in a context of constant development is a complicated but necessary process.
What is management?
This term is relevant in the case when it comes to managing the activities of different groups of employees both within the framework of a specific department and the entire enterprise as a whole.
Accordingly, the people responsible for the organization of quality management, called managers. Their key task is the competent formation of the labor process, its planning, control and motivation of the personnel. The result of such efforts must be timely achieved goals of the company.
Therefore, modern management is a constant desire for the development and improvement of the quality of work. It is worth noting the fact that professional management can lead to tangible social changes. As an example, the growing popularity of quality education, driven by the desire to get a good job.
Who is such a manager
Without effective guidance, the development of modern companies is not possible.
If you use the actual value of terms, then the manager can be called a manager or manager who has sufficient authority to solve various tasks related to specific activities of the enterprise.
In general, this category includes the following people:
- managers of the enterprise, as well as its subdivisions (it can be branches, units, etc.);
- organizers of different types of work, operating within the program-target groups or subdivisions;
- administrators, regardless of the level of management, whose responsibilities include the organization of the labor process, taking into account modern requirements;
- heads of any groups of specialists.
Regardless of the profile, the key task of a manager is always to manage the staff for a high-quality implementation of the tasks.
On the basis of the above information we can conclude that the essence of management is to plan, motivate, organize the process and its control. In fact, this is the goal of management.
Thus, the main functions of the manager have the following structure:
As for planning, it should be noted that within the framework of this function the definition of the most actual goals of the company is determined and a strategy for their achievement, up to the formation of the algorithm of the work of employees of all levels, is developed.
Enterprise management at this stage includes work on several key issues:
- Where is the company currently located?
- Where should you move?
- How will this movement (plan, resources, etc.) look like?
It is through planning that the management of the company determines the key areas in which major efforts need to be made.
Organization of the enterprise - is, in essence, the process of creating and developing the existing, as well as the new structure. In this case, the work of managers is focused on the accounting of all facets of internal processes of the company with a view to competent their interaction. In the presence of a qualitative formation of all processes and a global algorithm for the progress of the enterprise, all employees and managers will contribute to the effective achievement of the goals.
Also, the management system allows you to accurately determine who and what functions in the enterprise must perform.
Modern management is hard to imagine without proper motivation. The bottom line is that the algorithm of action and development will be successful only if all groups of employees can on a permanent basis to perform qualitatively their assigned functions. For this purpose, managers develop a system of personnel motivation, which allows maintaining a high level of interest in the exact achievement of goals.
The management purpose also includes control. The fact is that due to some circumstances, processes inside the company may somewhat deviate from the original algorithm and the implementation of tasks set to be questioned. To avoid such processes, managers pay a lot of attention to the control of their subordinates.
Managers who represent this category at the company are always a bit. The duties entrusted to them are significant. But they can be reduced to the following concept: competent development and further effective implementation of the company's development strategies. As part of this process, senior managers make important decisions that require appropriate expertise. This group of executives may represent, for example, a rector of an educational institution, a company president or a minister.
Considering the level of management, one should understand that the higher segment is responsible for the formation of the course of the entire enterprise. That is, these specialists actually choose the direction of development and determine how to move effectively within the specified rate. An error at this level can lead to significant financial and structural losses.
For this reason, the high level of management means active mental activity and a deep analysis of the company's work in general and each of its departments in particular.
This group of managers controls the managers of the lower category and collects information about the quality and timing of their tasks. This information is handed over to executives by executives.
This category includes deans, department heads, and others. Their area of responsibility is quite extensive, since it is necessary to monitor the large number of processes.
The average level of management in the company sometimes requires the hiring of so many specialists, which are divided into separate groups. And the latter can relate to different hierarchical stages. For example, some companies form both upper and lower levels of middle management.
Such managers, as a rule, manage large departments or divisions of the company.
Managers in this category are also called operational managers. This group of employees is always numerous. The lower level of management is focused on exercising control over the use of resources (personnel equipment, raw materials) and performance of production tasks. At the enterprises such work is done by the masters, the head of the laboratory, the head of the shop and other managers. At the same time, in the framework of the tasks of the lower link possible transition from one activity to another, which adds a lot of additional faces to work.
According to the research, given the variety of tasks and high intensity of work, lower levels of management are associated with significant workload. Those who occupy such a post must constantly move from the effective execution of one task to another.
In some cases, one step may take a little more than a minute. With such a frequent change in intraday activity, consciousness is in constant stress, which is threatened by prolonged stressful conditions.
With higher authorities such managers do not communicate very often, but with the subordinates communicating a lot.
Features of general management
This form of management is active in the framework of modern capitalist society.
General management is needed when there is a need for methods and management approaches that are suitable for any sphere in different socio-economic systems, and regardless of the level of management.
This category may include different techniques and management functions (accounting, organization, planning, analysis, etc.). As well as group dynamics and mechanisms used for further development and decision making.
Levels of general management
There are several levels of this form of management that are used depending on the situation. They look like this:
- Operative. The key task in this case is the competent regulation of processes related to the production of a product in a resource deficit.
- strategic. Within this direction, prospective markets and relevant products for them are identified, the desired management style is selected and a choice is made for the process of regulating the process.
- Normative. Here the management of the company is focused on the development of rules, norms and principles of the game, allowing the company to consolidate in a specific market and over time to strengthen their positions.
The structure of functional management
This system is necessary for the organization of effective management in certain areas of the company's activities. That is, she, unlike the general one, is not universal and encompasses different functions separately. This approach includes the actual schemes of the company's objectives, depending on the area of application of management tools, the type of business and the social environment.
The functional management system includes the following areas of management:
- information management algorithm;
- innovation management;
- information management algorithm;
- personnel management.
All these areas are more relevant, because the process of division of labor has led to the emergence of numerous facets of the enterprise as such. In addition, the specifics of each branch of entrepreneurship creates their unique working conditions.
This scheme of management organization should be given special attention. The bottom line is that markets are constantly changing, divided into separate segments and give life to new areas, there is a need to develop technologies and products that meet the ever increasing modern requirements. It is on this and directed this type of management.
Such a system is needed to effectively manage processes related to the production, distribution and subsequent use of technology, as well as products that can meet the needs of a progressive society and will have scientific and technological innovation.
Innovation management also aims to create an environment that allows for purposeful search, preparation, and implementation of the innovations necessary to maintain the competitiveness.
Levels of management and their characteristics, as well as various types of management - is an integral part of the modern economy, without which the company simply will not be able to meet the ever-changing market requirements.